Cameras into the Wild: A History of Early Wildlife and Expedition Filmmaking, 1895–1928
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Audiences found this fascinating and were spellbound by the exoticism and strangeness represented by the animals, people and scenery from other parts of the world.
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This might be countries, animals or plants that most people had never seen or heard of, and merely read about. It was heavy. It was not unusual for the equipment to weight to pounds. Charles Urban was the focal personality of the period. The picture was supposedly shown on 8 April In the following years the Kinemacolor system was introduced in a number of countries, and experienced 48 — 49 relative success in Great Britain. The system ultimately proved not to be functional enough, however, and by it had disappeared.
The cinematographer Oliver G. From , more directors began matching time and space between the cuts. According to Bordwell and Thompson, cross-cutting between scenes divided by space was used from onwards; but according to Salt, cross-cutting between parallel narrative lines did not reach a high technical standard until around and Yet this is a disputed fact.
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Salt disagrees with Neal. Salt believes that Kinemacolor was a success in the major cities from to The developing apparatus was a little over 3 feet high, 25 inches broad and 10 inches deep, which made the machine acceptable for major expeditions. Not until did Copenhagen get a viable cinema.
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The cinema, The Electric, was situated in Vancouver and charged an admission fee of 5 cents. In the beginning, a show cost about 1 penny in England and 5 cents in America. The admission fee was 5 cents for a 15 to 20 minute show. Denmark had witnessed a similar development. Three men played an important role in this context. The copy was distributed among them by a delivery boy, and the same copy might be shown in four different locations in a city on the same evening.
In , steps were taken to insure a system of distribution.
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Slowly this practice spread all over the world. Urban also became acquainted with other Edison products — e. This proved to be a good idea, and in time he built up his 52 Cameras into the Wild own team of cameramen and directors. Williamson had taken up cinematography in when he became acquainted with its existence during a laterna lecture. Another example was an expedition — the Urban Mountaineering Expedition — launched on 28 September of the same year.
It consisted of two climbs in Switzerland, one from Zermatt to the top of the Matterhorn, and the second from Interlaken to the top of the Jungfrau. The latter exists in two different versions — one of the Jungfrau and one of the Matterhorn. The matinees were called Urbanora and were structured around the many educational pictures that Urban Films had made during the two previous years. The matinees were meant to be educational shows for children. These series had been created through collaboration between F.
Martin-Duncan and Charles Urban. He was a zoologist and a great nature lover. According to the theater manager, Douglas Cox, the shows were a great success, but he admitted having been skeptical in the beginning: 54 Cameras into the Wild The Urban-Duncan catalogue front page. Life under water could be depicted relatively easily in a realistic manner, and you could obtain decent shots of the animals in question. Sometimes the microscopic subject was represented by means of connecting time and space. In comparison, The Amoebe the Beginning of Life is much more pedestrian.
It simply shows an enlargement of the movements of an amoeba and its splitting into two organisms. Martin-Duncan and depict mammals, reptiles, insects and birds. Filming was done under controlled conditions — i. Cheese mites United States Department of Agriculture. They do not appear to have any narrative features, but some descriptions do hint at staged, dramatic and narrative depictions.
The description of the latter is as follows: A beautiful picture of the web of the large garden spider, with the spider awaiting the prey. The victims fall into the meshes of the wonderfully constructed web, and are at once attacked by the spider, overcome, and swathed in silk. Of course, the generation of suspense is highly unlikely, as, according to Bordwell and Thompson, cross-cutting between scenes was not used until The series must have required a great amount of work, considering the heavy and cumbersome equipment.
The series might be said to have been inventive in regards to narrative techniques, and innovative in its use of aquariums, microscopes, staging and topics. The series never gave the audience an understanding of how the animals lived in their natural environment. Not many village people had visited a zoo, and not many city dwellers had been to a farm.
Lomas and J. The only titles of the package that indicate somewhat natural and authentic surroundings are Elephant with Native Surrounding and The Monkeys of Borneo. The next special sub-genre is more authentic and gives a more realistic depiction of the animals. In a sense, it is a little grotesque that we hardly ever see the hunted animal alive, but only after it has been killed by the hunter. This combination proved to have an ever-expanding market [Larsen , 49 — my translation].
At Nordisk Films no such drastic change is evident. Robert C. Allen has another theory, however. It was a lot easier to estimate the logistics and control them during production, and in many cases the price could be arranged beforehand. As for America, I rely on the studies of Sanderson, Musser and Allen, and I will limit the years of transition in the States to between and Film that depicts an event which might have a certain news value, and for this reason, actuality and sport are also part of the category.
The most expensive part of the production was transportation to the beautiful locations. The camera and the landscape did the rest. In fact, they appeared in their simple form until the s. Others — the majority — Charles Musser has examined Edwin S. The backdrop is always a pretty landscape, and the foreground shows a man and a woman.
Together, these elements create a special atmosphere connoting romantic love. Both the scenery and the couple may be understood in the context of romantic love — and even sexual passion.
George C. Louis in The wagon was turned into a small cinema that had only one window, through which the audience could see beautiful landscape scenery pass by outside. This will be discussed in the following sections. I have not been able to ascertain exactly when the camera went into production, but we must assume that this happened in the late s. This was a major advantage when the camera was to be used in a shelter that had little room for the camera and the cinematographer. From time to time it would produce electric sparks. Small telephoto lenses were 63 64 Cameras into the Wild Herbert G.
Bigger telephoto lenses i. It is very likely that long lenses of around mm were used in animal shots in , for in this year Oliver G. Pike is said to have used a mm f 6. Some variety theaters responded to the crisis by reducing their entry fees. Thus, one variety theater in New York reduced its prices from 50 to 30 cents.
The competition for the audience became increasingly tough, and the counter-move of the Nickelodeons shop cinemas was to clean up and decorate their venues. Some of them also began introducing small song and dance acts in keeping with the Variety Theater tradition. Due to the economic situation, the Nickelodeons ultimately proved to be the more attractive form of entertainment because the price was still only 5 or 10 cents. Shop cinemas had been established in most reasonably sized cities. According to Barry Salt, there were Nickelodeons in America around Other cinema entrepreneurs followed, and by the summer of there were 50 cinemas in Paris.
Many of these were situated in shopping or entertainment areas, and consisted of new buildings, converted lecture halls, concert halls, theaters or even churches. Already two years later, in , the number of cinemas had reached over They write that the Nickelodeons had room for fewer than people.
Allen, , estimates that they had room for about The producer and distributor George Kleine made similar changes in several of his branches in America and Canada. The purpose of the new distribution system was to achieve order. In most cases, the second aim does not require creative skill, but is well served by capable craftsmanship [Rotha , ]. Already in , Urban wrote the following in The Moving Picture World: The entertainer has hitherto monopolized the cinematograph for exhibition purposes, but movement in more serious directions has become imperative, and our object is to prove that the cinematograph must be recognized as a national instrument by They were used to create drama and provide information, as well as for pure entertainment.
In they commenced a collaboration with the Englishmen Oliver G. Pike and the Frenchman Jean Comandon. They became more popular and were shown in cinemas all over the world. It would have taken some time for the audience to read an intertitle of this length, but the anthropomorphic and entertaining juxtapositions make the text easy to read. The other intertitles are not quite as anthropomorphic as this one, but they are just as entertaining.
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Anthropomorphism ascribes to animals abilities and social conditions that are otherwise only applicable and relevant to human beings. In literature, this is evident in the animal fables of Aesop and La Fontaine. The most famous animal fables were written by Aesop, who lived years before Christ and who inspired La Fontaine — Many of these characteristics are very well known e. Britain, P. The copy I have seen has a length of 7 minutes, contains 20 scenes and 10 intertitles, and forms part of the series Hidden Wonders of Nature. He catches something, which he puts into a glass.
The second shot depicts in p.