Der zerrissene Schleier: Roman (German Edition)
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People can share the meanings of this traditional emotional sensitivity, but the sadness coming from it is confined to each person. This is a kind of fragile relationship between persons with fragile minds that underlies the desire to share the same meanings of existence in this world whilst at the same time keeping apart from each other. This is an interesting topic for intercultural angeletics. To put this another way, we might say that Japanese people live in mental situations leading them to constant pursuit of the meaning of life and human relations as well as to meta-communication or shared cultural, existential contexts determining their life, human relations and ways of communication.
This research, done in , is based on samples of Japanese university students. His interpretation of these data can lead to misunderstandings in some ways. I try to interpret the data as follows:. Students with an orientation toward strong and constant friendship and with an orientation toward moderate, not strong but also not weak, i. Do you have a cold? In order to understand some problems related with Japanese phatic communication and with intercultural angeletics, we should take into consideration, using this as an example, the Japanese orientation toward or the pursuit of the meaning of good communication, good human relations and good human living.
I discussed the meanings of Japanese blogs, Japanese popular songs, the Japanese sense of privacy as subject matter for communication via SMS or blogs in my papers Nakada , ; Nakada and Capurro What is exactly meant, from the point of view of angeletics, by the original connection between a sender and a receiver? And as you know, his studies on aphasia and agnosia are strongly associated with Jakobson's studies on language and aphasia Merleau-Ponty The phatic function might be considered to be the only function that birds have in common with human beings.
This is very interesting too. Then we human beings and other creatures would have 'the original connection' in the dimension of the phatic function! But each function, understood as a basic mood, makes the world openness or ontological dimension, manifest in different ways, at least in the case of Dasein.
According to Luhmann, these three dimensions constitute the concept of communication. In this model there is an original and recursive relation between sender and receiver. This means, if I understand you correctly, that the phatic function is an essential element of communication because it enables a distinction to be made within the process of communication itself each time when a selection of a meaning takes place. Is my understanding correct?
Cybernetics has taught us that every receiver can turn into a sender. This relationship, called the transference phenomenon, takes place from both sides.
We can distinguish roughly the following conceptions:. I shall try to explain this issue later. Each interpretation is based on a process of message transmission.
Which means that hermeneutics presupposes angeletics. Hermes is first and foremost a messenger, no less than an interpreter and translator. Of course, a philosophical angeletics is no less ambitious than twentieth century hermeneutic philosophy. We should also make a distinction between an ontic or empirical science of messages and messengers, and a philosophical angeletics.
As an empirical science, angeletics is not necessarily reduced to the phenomenon of human communication but can include also all kinds of messages and messengers in the natural sciences. Let me further explain what I understand by angeletic philosophy and, correspondingly, by a philosophical angeletics, using other Heideggerian themes, without going into a detailed textual analysis or exegesis of Heidegger. As Jean-Luc Nancy, following Heidegger, remarks, philosophy and particularly hermeneutics can be understood as the presentation of a message.
The task of thinking is of the kind of being a messenger Nancy , ; Capurro This can be expressed in simple terms by saying that we human beings are finite beings and are aware of our givenness as well.
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Sheehan It is in original unity and difference with its Here. The message is the world. Dasein announces its facticity with the phatic dialogical! Humans as the Here of Being are messengers of Being, letting beings be what they are. He writes:. The messenger must already come from the message. But he must also already have gone toward it.
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Heidegger , , my translation RC. It is the opposite of the kind of messengers we call ambassadors Botschafter. There is an original unity and difference between Being and Dasein beyond or prior to any ontic separation of sender, message, messenger and receiver. I think that today this double-bind casting of Being is done from a perspective of the digital. Loneliness and anxiety are moods through which, as Heidegger taught us, we discover the truth, that is to say, the finitude of being-in-the-world-with-others.
We receive and pass on — and sometimes try to bypass — the message of Being because we are originally the Here of its disclosure. Although we mostly live immersed in the given openness of everyday existence, exchanging messages and maintaining communication through the phatic function, we have the potentiality to grasp a given historical disclosure of Being as a possible one, that is to say, to change its truth.
An example of this at the level of an ontic region is the so-called paradigm change in science where the pre-ontological messages facts that are supposed to prove or falsify a theory are re-interpreted when the theory, with all its biases, pre-conceptions and pre-suppositions, its instruments, institutions, traditions, etc. This opens the debate as to which are the ethical criteria for making a distinction between a messenger of Being and its opposite a charlatan , with all degrees in between. One important criterion for this difficult ethical task that is always endangered by manipulation and self-deception is whether the messenger maintains critically the openness of Being or proclaims an absolute truth.
Another criterion is whether other messengers also remain critical with regard to the alternative casting of Being as passed on to them, or whether they develop from there, say, a political ideology, a mere worldview or a theoretical dogma I thank Michael Eldred for an enlightening e-mail exchange on this issue. I've struggled with the problem why a lot of people are influenced by fiction or the imaginative representation of the mass media, even though they know the difference between the reality facts and the fictions copies of reality.
This problem can't be solved if we think that facts or messages of some facts are the first original and the mediated portrayal news, dramas are the copies of the first-hand realities. And now I know that we have to think about the presupposition that the message of Being is first and the human messenger is second.
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This is my personal understanding. Now, I feel that we are close to the core questions of mediated and aesthetic expressions as well as of communication itself. I wonder how we as messengers can send this kind of discussion to a broader range of possible receivers. I wonder also how we can relate this kind of discussion to the problems of information ethics and robo-ethics in an academic or theoretical as well as in a practical way in order to address difficult matters such as youth's wrong-doings as an expression of the loss of identity, or the loss of sense of fundamental relations between human beings, the poverty of meaning in our minds and so on.
I am also thinking about comparing the phatic function in different cultures. Some of my graduate students come from various countries. Hideo Kobayashi says that if we try to make good use of active wisdom, we have to get rid of selfishness. This means that the interpretation of some poems or novels can't be separated from the imaginative relations between authors and readers. I remember having heard a story about nodding robots. Even nodding robots enable people to communicate more easily, for example, when speaking on the telephone, even if the nodding robots are just showing fake agreement.
It is strange that some autistic patients can communicate with robots more easily than with human beings in some cases, according to studies on human-robot-interaction Feil-Seifer and Mataric In my view, we can explain these phenomena in such a way. Human communication consists of different levels and in many cases patients with, for example, agnosia, autism or schizophrenia,have difficulty dealing with or understanding information or meanings at the meta-level of communication.
I gained this insight from Bin Kimura Kimura and Masakazu Yamazaki Yamazaki ; fake communication with robots might enable patients to deal with the meanings at the meta-level more easily because this sort of communication has a simple structure. So in this sense, the distinction between fake and real is not so important. Hideo Kobayashi did not study Heidegger or Gadamer but he knew that these questions regarding the relations between texts and readers are important.
From this perspective, Socrates is not a sender but a messenger of ideas that come to him from beyond. In the middle of the tale we read about Princess Asagao, daughter of Prince Momozono, brother of the Emperor, who has been courted in vain by Prince Genji, her cousin, from his seventeenth year onward. Genji is now thirty-three years old.
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In Chapter 20 Murasaki Shikibu tells the story of the problematic relationship between Genji and Asagao. At the beginning of Chapter 21 she writes:. Lady Asagao expressed great displeasure at this lavishness and, if the presents had been accompanied by letters or poems of at all a familiar or impertinent kind, she would at once have put a stop to these attentions. But for a year past there had been nothing in his conduct to complain of. From time to time he came to the house and enquired after her, but always quite openly. His letters were frequent and affectionate, but he took no liberties, and what nowadays troubled her chiefly was the difficulty of inventing anything to say in reply.
Murasaki Shikibu , Princess Asagao is in trouble. Should she answer or not? Should she continue a formal and, at least for her, meaningless phatic communication?