The Adventures of Elizabeth Stanton Series Volume 8 The Emperor and Empress
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In the decade that followed, numerous memoirs, plays, and historical accounts were published and translated into a variety of languages , including French, Spanish, English, Hungarian, Czech and Slovak, Russian, Portuguese, and others.
Hoffmann, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. After the First World War, more works on Maximilian appeared when the collapse of the Habsburg Empire left scholars free to access hitherto private family papers at the Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv in the Hofburg. May my blood, now to be shed, be shed for the good of Mexico.
Both were Habsburg enterprises, but only Maximilian obtained the peculiar status of a celebrity in virtue of his failure. Maximilian had become the stuff of a growing culture industry , which began with the photographic depiction of his execution. A Journal of Civilization. The impoverished Manet had cut up the painting, to be sold in parts. But his friend Edgar Degas later purchased the fragments and reassembled them. Manet had never been to Mexico but used photographs, accounts circulating in the French press, as well as an image by Goya of the Spanish resistance against Napoleon, as a basis.
He was not trying to get as close to reality as possible; but he wanted to capture the true spirit of the event. Immediately interpreted as an open critique of Napoleon III, the painting and even its lithographic reproductions were banned in France. It was then sold on to another French buyer for 12, By , German buyer Bernheim found that it was worth 60, francs. By , the Mannheim art gallery bought the painting for the equivalent of 90, francs. The purchase was facilitated from a government grant by a special permission of John Maynard Keynes and Lord Curzon , who were being advised by Roger Fry.
One of the economic consequences of the war was a rapid depreciation of art. Keynes and Curzon formed an ad hoc committee from the National Gallery and travelled to Paris , just as Germany was bombing the city, to acquire the painting at an auction. At the turn of the century, the Habsburgs turned from collectors to collectibles, from owners of curiosity into objects of curiosity. The Paris art salon had established a tradition for depicting decapitated and deposed monarchs, but prior to Manet, they focused mostly on France and Britain.
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Some factors are specific to each case. Besides, both shared the familial charisma of the Habsburgs, which still carried some weight. As scholars have argued, through institutions such as the collection of ethnographic objects, museums, and other forms of cultural heritage, the Habsburgs gave their subject shared and divided forms of identity. In their absence, the character of this identity was put into question. Even before Franz Ferdinand was assassinated, Sigmund Freud observed that his patients had obsessive dreams that were based on their repressed fears of agents provocateurs.
He empathized with an indigenous prince , and yet also admired the idea of empire. He brought Mexican antiquities to Europe, but when he took up residence in Chapultepec Castle, an eighteenth-century palace erected for the Spanish viceroys on the tip of a sacred Aztec site, he had it redesigned in the style of Neuschwanstein — the epitome of neo-Gothic Europeanism. As between these two achievements of imperial power, he preferred the Crystal Palace to the Leviathan. Would it not be a brilliant dream to draw the latter in order to win the former?
Back in Europe, Maximilian was critical upon seeing the sale of women in a market in Constantinople. Representatives of other dynasties, the Hohenzollern s, Wittelsbach s, Romanoffs, and Saxe-Coburg Gothas , also sent their incumbents to the throne on global journeys between the s and the s. The Bavarian prince Rupprecht and the Prussian crown prince Wilhelm travelled to the Orient using the services of the North German Lloyd in and , respectively.
In the photographs, he is shown parading with an English sentry and with dragoons in various locations in India. The Hohenzollern prince, like Franz Ferdinand, focused on his hunting of tigers and leopards in Mirzapur and Hyderabad , with one of the coloured plates showing two leopards shot by the prince on 23 January In this process, the old dynasties acquired a new property — that of a celebrity of decline — suggesting that what seemed to be parallel developments were in fact crossroads of imperial disintegration.
A peculiar reversal had occurred. As early as the s, royal courts like those of the Habsburgs and the Bonapartes had employed court photographers. Those same photographers also produced typological ethnographic images of their subjects, both in Europe — producing exotic-looking images of various Slavic peoples — and beyond, such as a series of images of non-Europeans.
But only a few decades later, those same photographers documented the executions of members of royal families, and some of them also became the chief authors of critical depictions of European imperial rule. Imperial dynasties historically had a high level of control not only over their own image, but also over the cultural memory of actions carried out in their name. This was a form of cultural power or charisma at which the Habsburgs excelled even above the other families. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, other princely houses throughout Europe commissioned artists such as Giambattista Tiepolo to represent them in allegorical frescoes of empire.
However, in the modern era, these tools of representation increasingly escaped the control of the royal courts. This kind of change in control over art and culture made it possible for Jean-Paul Marat , a comparatively short-lived political figure with no dynastic power, to obtain a greater celebrity upon his death than the publicly executed Habsburg queen, Marie Antoinette. The loss of control over their own image was not a problem only for the old dynasties.
Emperors of India
Governments of every kind, including the Republican government of the United States , found it difficult to control the dissemination of visual information that could serve to critique their policies. The political impact of this opening up of visual exchange was first felt in the sphere of war documentation.
While governments preferred what would now be called embedded painters to depict scenes of war, or commissioned works from trusted artists after the fact, they found it increasingly difficult to prevent critical images from reaching a wider public. For example, the famous Russian battle painter Vasili Vereshchagin , who had been originally hired by the imperial army to depict heroic battle scenes, eventually became a critic of imperialism and sympathized with anarchists and socialist s.
The international art market allowed him to remain independent from the payments he could have enjoyed from any of these armies. His paintings were displayed in London , Paris , St. Petersburg , Munich , Chicago , and New York, and he also sold paintings internationally. One image showing a dying Russian soldier was banned from a St.
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Petersburg art salon in , but went on display in art salons in Chicago and Paris ; conversely, his painting of British violence against Indians, Blowing from Guns , which revived the memory of the violent crushing of the Sepoy rebellion in , was not displayed in London but was presented in St. In addition to realist painting, photography was on its way to becoming an effective way to apply political pressure on governments.
Photography itself did not change this tradition. Of the dozens of ruling houses in Europe that lost power in the twentieth-century European revolutions , two in particular became repeated targets of political assassinations: the Habsburgs and the Romanoffs, both of which lost several family members in only three generations. The new technologies of representation favoured displays of personal, unique, and unrepeatable characteristics, which initially allowed their aristocratic owners to continue the old hagiographic tradition. People used small postcard-sized photographs as cartes de visite through a process of reproduction invented and patented in Paris in the s.
Public knowledge of royal assassinations far exceeded the boundaries of their empires. With new technologies improving their availability, photographs were increasingly appreciated for their documentary value; they were no longer merely hagiographic in purpose. As photographs became more easily producible and reproducible, they reached an audience that was widening in terms of both social class and geography. Within a span of twenty years, photographers originally trained in Vienna and Paris had opened offices in Berlin , St.
Petersburg , Moscow , New York , Mexico City , Buenos Aires, the states of Pernambuco and Bahia, and many other locations, and the press increasingly adopted the medium as documentation of events. Another photographer, though he probably did not witness the moment itself, used a montage to recreate the execution of Habsburg emperor Maximilian of Mexico in Revolutions against the German Barons of the Baltic provinces in Russia left vivid images of demolished country estates, which could be used both to condemn and to sympathize with the revolutionaries.
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Of course, not all assassinations were documented in as much detail as that of Maximilian. In the absence of photographs showing the Romanoff family being killed, photographs taken four years prior to their execution in were scrutinized in the illustrated press and popular biographies to conjure up a feeling of immediacy.
While in Mexico, he was a guest at the Jockey Club of Mexico City, the place where members of high society mingled, just as they did in Vienna and Prague. One General O. Ochoa he knew apparently owned the Popocatepetl. He had attended St. The tourism industry around the Habsburgs had begun with the court itself licensing specific photographers to disseminate images of their estates to a wider public.
Thus the copyright licence for distributing images of Miramar as well as monuments to Maximilian belonged to the Trieste-born photographer Guglielmo Sebastianutti. In the context of a blooming cultural production on the theme of crisis and decline characteristic of this period, publications on Maximilian picked up. The composer Franz Liszt wrote several works dedicated to Maximilian. Vienna State Opera commissioned the modernist composer Ernst Krenek to write a stage work on the Habsburg emperor Karl V , the reluctant emperor who agreed to have his empire reduced by half and lost the Spanish part to the Bourbons in the sixteenth century, with references to Maximilian.
Outside Austria, the resonance was equally great. In Paris, Darius Milhaud wrote several musical works on the subject. His first published image had been a portrait of Leon Trotsky in Many of the hagiographic films of Habsburg decline were produced by actors, directors, and composers, who, although they had been subjects of the Romanoff and Habsburg dynasties, were no particular admirers of the family: actors and directors Joseph von Sternberg and Alexander Korda, for example, or the composer Erich Wolfgang Korngold.
For them, the stories of dynastic decline served as a way of rethinking their own loss of identity. In the same way, few people beyond the borders of the Austro-Hungarian Empire had even heard of Franz Ferdinand when he was shot in The growing film industry allowed a much wider audience to share in the experience of decline.
As a form of voluntary homelessness, globetrotting first became an activity for the affluent, and typically male, members of the modern world. Private and corporate organizers profited from the availability of new travel routes, backed by the military power of European imperial governments.
The Suez Canal, which opened in , allowed direct passage from the Mediterranean to the Red and Arabian sea s as well as the Indian Ocean. The travel notes to exotic countries that the Habsburgs left behind echoed those of other princes of their generation , such as the Saxe-Coburg Gothas , and the Hohenzollern s. Could western Europe have industrialized on its own without those great overseas imperialist corporations? It is historically visible in the experience of pre-capitalist as well as capitalist and post-capitalist or non-capitalist economic systems What is distinct in capitalism is its insistence that the whole purpose of production is the growth of capital; it is thus the essential and on-going form of capital accumulation.
The main driving purpose of capitalist production is not so much the "product" as it is the volume of capital gained in the full productive and marketing process. The purpose is to maximize the accumulation of surplus-value.